5. In the absence of an international standard, directive or recommendation, or if the content of a proposed regulation is not fundamentally identical to the content of an international standard, directive or recommendation and the regulation can have a significant impact on other members` exchanges, members strive to support the application of harmonised health and plant health measures among members. , based on international standards, guidelines and recommendations developed by relevant international organizations, including the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Bureau of Epidemics and relevant international and regional organizations acting within the framework of the International Convention on Plant Protection, without members having to change their appropriate level of protection for human health conditions. , animal or plant; (2) Where significant investments are required to enable a member of an exporting country to meet the health or plant health requirements of an importing member, the member plans to provide technical assistance to enable the member of the developing country to maintain and expand its market access opportunities for the product concerned. (4) Members should consider the objective of minimizing negative commercial effects when adopting an appropriate level of health or plant health protection. While the SPS agreement allows governments to maintain adequate health and plant health protection, it reduces the potential arbitrariness of decisions and promotes consistent decision-making. It requires that sanitary and plant health measures be applied for purposes other than ensuring food security and animal and plant health. In particular, the agreement clarifies the factors to be taken into account when assessing risk risk. Measures to ensure food security and the protection of animal and plant health should, where possible, be based on the analysis and evaluation of objective and accurate scientific data. Under the SPS agreement, the WTO sets limits on Member States` policy on food security (bacterial contaminants, pesticides, inspection and labelling) and animal and plant health (phyto-hygiene) with regard to pests and imported diseases. There are three standards bodies that set standards on which WTO members should base their SPS methods. According to Article 3, they are the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the secretariat of the International Convention on the Protection of Plants (IPPC).
The decision to start the Uruguay Round trade negotiations was taken after years of public debate, including within national governments. The decision to negotiate an agreement on the application of sanitary and plant health measures was taken in 1986 at the beginning of the cycle. The SPS negotiations were opened to the 124 governments that participated in the Uruguay Round. Many governments were represented by their food safety or animal health officers. Negotiators also drew on the expertise of international technical organizations such as FAO, the code and the OIE. (5) In order to achieve a uniform application of the concept of appropriate health or plant health protection against risks to life or human or animal health, or to animals or to health, each member avoids any arbitrary or unjustified difference between levels that he deems appropriate in different situations, where such distinctions result in discrimination or disguised restriction of international trade. Members are cooperating with the Section 12, paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 committee to develop guidelines to promote the practical implementation of this provision. In developing the guidelines, the committee takes into account all relevant factors, including the exceptional nature of the human health risks to which individuals voluntarily expose themselves.